Concrete Tower Construction
Slip Form Technology
The Tennessee Valley Authority/AP
Twin cooling towers of the Bellefonte nuclear power plant near Scottsboro, Ala
Diagram Of The Multiple Effect Distillation Process
16" Superflux RO installed at Pulau Seraya in Singapore
DEAD SEA POWER PROJECT DESALINATION
The Dead Sea Power Project will make available abundant seawater supply for desalination along the tunnel route near Jerusalem, from the storage reservoir at the end of the tunnel, and from the deep layer of Med Sea water that would be placed on top of the Dead Sea.
Desalination feed water can be made available by pumping from the DSPP tunnel at convenient locations near Jerusalem. Reject brine can be returned to the tunnel flow without greatly increasing the salinity of the flow, because the total flow of the tunnel will be around five billion cubic meters annually. Thus 250 million cubic meters of potable water could be separated by desalination, and would only increase the brine content of the tunnel flow by five percent. This desalination feed water from the tunnel could be supplied for a cost of ten cents per cubic meter, the value of the energy produced by the water had it been delivered to the Dead Sea via the DSPP hydroelectric plant.
Abundant desalination feed water utilizing the deep layer of Med Sea water that will be placed on top of the Dead Sea by the Dead Sea Power Project will enable the development of independently operated desalination plants to provide the future water needs of the region. Reject brine from the desalination process should be returned to the intermediate layer between the Med Sea water and the underlying Dead Sea water, using a low velocity injection method to avoid mixing of the layers.
Sea Water Reverse Osmosis desalination can be installed for the first stage desalination plant, and either MVC or MED distillation process can be added later to concentrate the brine from the SWRO plant. MED (Multiple Effect Distillation) desalination in combination with proposed gas fired co-generation power plants would be a cost effective way to accomplish additional desalination. Future developments such as new generation nuclear plants could supply needed heat and energy for desalination without releasing carbon into the atmosphere.
Distillation desalination processes such as Mechanical Vapor Compression desalination and Multiple Effect Distillation are desirable because they can remove ninety percent of the feed water as potable water while concentrating the reject brine to about the same density as the Dead Sea water. Returning this concentrated brine to the layer between the lower Dead Sea water and the Med Sea water on top will help maintain the saline gradient layering of the Dead Sea. The level of the underlying Dead Sea water will be gradually lowered by pumping into the evaporation ponds for the Potash mining operations of the Dead Sea Works and Arab Potash Company.
Mechanical Vapor Compression desalination can be accomplished more efficiently by using large concrete towers built with latest slip form technology to provide containment buildings that will house the equipment and condenser assembly. Multiple centrifugal vapor compressors having a combined output of 8 metric tons per second, and total power rating of about 100,000 kW, can be mounted in the top of each 100 meter diameter tower above a demisting grid. The individual compressors will have free vapor intake, and be connected by ducts to the condenser assembly.
High-pressure seawater can be sprayed on the outer surface of the condenser tubes, providing an efficient evaporation environment within the low vapor pressure produced by evacuating air from the tower. Heat will be transferred from the condensing vapor inside the tubes to the evaporating seawater on the tubesí outer surface. The brine concentrated by the evaporation process will drop to the floor of the tower, to be expelled by pumping, and sent to the Dead Sea. Heat from the brine and the distillate will be exchanged with the incoming feed water.
Air can be continuously evacuated by venturi, using the distillate as the motive fluid, from the bottom of the condenser assembly. Since air is heavier than water vapor, air will collect in the bottom of the condenser assembly just above the distillate, and can be continuously removed with the distillate, which will be removed by pumping. This continuous air evacuation will maintain the low vapor pressure within the building.
One most desirable feature of this design is that the low operating temperature will inhibit the buildup of scale on the evaporation surface. IDE Tech has estimated that scale removal for such a low temperature process will be necessary only once in five years. This minimizes the need for expensive and environmentally harmful chemical additives to the feed water.
The price of water produced by this method will be about forty cents per metric ton. Four of the proposed units will produce a total volume of thirty-two cubic meters per second, or about one billion cubic meters per year, worth $400 million at $.40 per cubic meter.
Low cost green energy from wind farms on top of the mountains in Jordan could provide additional energy for desalination and for pumped storage of energy, by using wind energy to pump water into reservoirs on the mountains in Jordan. This water could be released back to the Dead Sea through reversible turbine pump-generators to generate electricity as needed.
The GrahamTek Super-Flux RO incorporate patented technologies that significantly refine conventional RO desalination technologies.
Technological innovations offer the only systems available in the world today that inhibit fouling and scaling during operation, eliminating the need for chemicals and achieving higher fluxes than conventional, higher energy reliant RO membrane systems.
These chemical-free, energy efficient innovations improve membrane performance with greater flux rates, lower overall energy consumption and provide longer plant life with significantly
reduced plant foot prints than conventional Reverse Osmosis systems.